Hyaluronic Acid in Inflammation and Tissue Regeneration.
Litwiniuk M, Krejner A, Speyrer MS, Gauto AR, Grzela T. Wounds. 2016 Mar;28(3):78-88.
In this review, the authors summarize the role of HA polymers of different molecular weight in tissue regeneration and provide a short overview of main cellular receptors involved in HA signaling. In addition, the role of HA in 2 major steps of wound healing is examined: inflammation and the angiogenesis process. Finally, the antioxidative properties of HA are discussed and its possible clinical implication presented.
Results and Conclusions:
Hyaluronic acid is present through all steps of the wound healing process not only as a component of the wound environment, but as a factor that actively modulates tissue regeneration. Along with studies that revealed the unique properties of HA, some attempts have been made to apply it in clinical practice, especially in chronic wound treatment. Extensive literature can be found concerning exogenous applications of HA to wounds. Various HA sources, formulations, and delivery systems have been used in clinical trials. A rich natural source of HA are fetal membranes, especially the jelly substance from the umbilical cord and the amnion. The amniotic membrane has been used in traditional medicine, and also in the form of a commercially available dressing in wound treatment.72 Studies have revealed the amniotic membrane, even after various processing and preservation procedures, contains high amounts of HMWHA. This component of the amnion is one of the factors responsible for its beneficial actions observed in chronic wound therapy. An effective wound healing therapy remains one of the greatest challenges of modern clinical medicine. Hyaluronic acid as a biologically active molecule that regulates tissue repair process on multiple levels should be considered as a safe and effective option to be used in skin repair.